Study UK Fair


Awal kuliah di SPs UIN Jakarta sering mengundang pembicara dari luar untuk memberikan kuliah umum atau pembekalan tentang penelitian Tesis atau Disertasi. Di antara pembicara yang pernah hadir adalah James Arvanitakis dari Western Sydney University. Sejak itu, timbul keinginan suatu saat selepas dari SPs UIN melanjutkan ke universitas ini. Beberapa bulan setelahnya saya sempat menghadiri Monash Doctoral Day di hotel Fairmont Jakarta. Kali pertama saya mengikuti pameran pendidikan di luar negeri.

Ketika awal-awal membuat proposal penelitian Tesis, saya mencari referensi kajian Pendidikan Islam tentang reflective practice. Sayang sekali, tema ini belum banyak dikaji orang. Alhamdulillah saya mendapatkan tulisan menarik oleh Dr. Abdullah Sahin dari Warwick University, UK tentang Rethinking Islamic Pedagoy. Selanjutnya saya cari tulisan-tulisan beliau untuk saya telaah dan baca, di antara buku beliau yang fenomenal adalah New Direction in Islamic Education.

Pertemuan saya dengan tulisan dan buku Abdullah Sahin membuat keinginan saya berubah dari meneruskan studi S3 di Australia menjadi ke Inggris. Maka dari itu, sejak 2018 saya mulai mengikuti info pameran Study UK yang sering diadakan British Council Indonesia.

Di acara –acara seperti ini, banyak hal yang bisa kita peroleh. Contohnya adalah pengalaman (at least pengalaman ngomong sama orang asing),  info perihal Visa ke UK, trik IELTS dan ngerjain soal IELTS dan seminar lainnya.

Kenangan tahun 2019 di Kartika Expo Centre, Jakarta.

Di meja ini saya bertemu dengan perwakilan universitas dan dia memberikan buku cakep tentang profil Warwick. Saya sampaikan keinginan saya nanti untuk melanjutkan studi tingkat doktoral dengan bidang kajian Islamic Studies.

Si perwakilan universitas menunjukkan bagian buku tentang Education dan syarat kemampuan bahasa yang harus dimiliki. Selantnya dia memberitahu kalau sekarang ada program khusus untuk kajian pendidikan di Warwick yang diampu oleh Abdullah Sahin.

Abdullah Sahin membuat program Warwick Islamic Education Summer yang mengkaji Pendidikan Islam dari berbagai perspektif. Tahun lalu temanya adalah Pedagogies in Dialogue. Infonya pernah kami tulis di tautan ini.

Rethinking Islamic Pedagogy


Pedagogi Islam menjadi sorotan ahli Pendidikan Islam. Salah satunya Dr. Abdullah Sahin, ketua peneliti Islamic Studies di Warwick University, UK.

Slide materi beliau tentang “Rethinking Islamic Pedagogy” pertama kali saya dapatkan ketika mencari bahan referensi untuk Tesis saya tentang reflective practice dalam pendidikan Islam.

Dari slide ini juga saya menjadi tahu buku karya Dr. Sahin yang fenomenal dan termasuk penelitian Pendidikan Islam yang berpengaruh saat ini. Buku tersebut berjudul “New Direction in Islamic Education: Pedagogy and Identity Formation” diterbitkan Kube Publishing, UK.

Alhamdulillah, segala puji bagi Allah. Setelah beberapa kali komunikasi dengan beliau via Twitter dan keinginan saya menjadikan bukunya sebagai referensi utama Tesis. Akhir November yang lalu beliau menjadi pemateri pada Expert Meeting yang diadakan Departemen Agama di Pullman Hotel. Sore harinya, ketika beliau akan kembali ke UK, ada email masuk dari beliau yang meminta saya ke hotel mengambil buku New Direction beliau. Senang sekali ditambah ada tanda tangan beliau.

Slide Rethinking Islamic Pedagogy di tautan ini.

Apakah Pendidikan Islam Mengajarkan Berpikir Kritis (Critical Thinking)?


Apakah pedagogi Islam memiliki kapasitas untuk melestarikan aspek penting pengetahuan dan tetap mendorong pemikiran kritis?

Apakah menciptakan pemikir kritis merupakan tujuan dari sistem pendidikan Islam dan di mana dalam sistem pedagogis seharusnya pemikiran kritis diajarkan?

Sarjana Muslim abad pertengahan telah banyak menulis tentang pengembangan kurikulum dan tujuan dan sasaran sistem pendidikan Islam.

Membandingkan Blooms taxonomy dengan karya-karya skolastik klasik abad pertengahan pada pengembangan kurikulum menunjukkan kesamaan yang luar biasa dalam pemahaman mereka tentang peran menghafal sebagai aspek mendasar dari pendidikan.

Does the Islamic pedagogy have the capacity to preserve the sacred aspect of knowledge and still encourage critical thought?

Is creating critical thinkers actually an objective of the Islamic educational systems and where in the pedagogical system should critical thought be taught?

Medieval Muslim scholars have written extensively on curriculum development and the goals and objectives of Islamic educational systems.

Comparing Blooms taxonomy to classical medieval scholastic works on curriculum development shows amazing similarities in their understanding of the role of memorization as a fundamental aspect of education.

Penelitian Michael Smith dari Qalam Institute US memberikan penguatan kepada Pendidikan Islam yang sedang marak di Indonesia yaitu menghafal Alquran di masa kecil yaitu dengan membandingkan kurikulum Zaman pertengahan dengan Bloom Taxonomy.

Dan perlu menjadi perhatian bahwa menghafal adalah basis paling bawah dalam Bloom, Penghafal Alquran jangan hanya cukup disitu, tapi meningkatkan diri ke level lebih atas atau dalam Istilah Alquran adalah Tadabbur, Tadzakkur, Tafakkur ( dalam Bloom: understand, apply, analiza..) disini peran sekolah, institusi atau guru berperan.

Bila Penghafal Alquran tidak meningkatkan dirinya ke level yang lebih atas, maka akan dikhawatirkan kemampuan berpikir kritis hilang, jiwa rapuh dan mudah diajak ikut terorisme sebagaimana diungkapkan Prof. Abdullah Sahin dalam bukunya New Direction in Islamic Education.

kemunduran dan ketertinggalan negara-negara Islam di bidang pendidikan antara lain disebabkan institusi pendidikan mereka kurang mengamalkan dua tradisi penting pengajaran dan pendidikan yang pernah melejitkan peradaban Islam masa lampau di bidang iptek. Dua tradisi tersebut yaitu institusi dan sistem pendidikan yang menghormati kebebasan akademik dan mengutamakan berpikir kritis.

Maka institusi pendidikan perlu menyuburkan kembali tradisi berpikir kritis dan penghormatan atas kebebasan akademik.

Simak kajian Ust Hasrizal dari Malaysia yang saat ini sedang menyelesaikan doktoral di Findland.

(PDF) Islamic Pedagogy and Critical Thinking: Does Islamic Pedagogy want Critical Thinkers oleh Michael Smith dari Qalam Institute

Available from:

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/327254250_Islamic_Pedagogy_and_Critical_Thinking_Does_Islamic_Pedagogy_want_Critical_Thinkers

(PDF) New Directions in Islamic Education-Abdullah Sahin Introduction & Book Review.

Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/327104119_New_Directions_in_Islamic_Education-Abdullah_Sahin_Introduction_Book_Review

New Directions in Islamic Education – Abdullah Sahin – Introduction & Book Review


New Directions in Islamic Education explores the relationship between pedagogy and the formation of religious identities within Islamic education settings that are based in minority and majority Muslim contexts. Based on empirical research, the book engages critically with the philosophical, theological and cultural dynamics that inform Muslim educational thought and practice.

The book offers an integrated model of Islamic education that identifies the heart of the Islamic educational imagination as tarbiyah, a transformative process of becoming. Overall, this book seeks to ground the theory and practice of Islamic education within the experience of the educator and the learner, and it synthesises the spiritual foundations of Islam with the tradition of critical reflection to be found within the classical Muslim educational heritage.

Reviewed By Roshan Shah

The role of religious education in shaping Muslim self-identities is a much-discussed issue these days. This timely book is a scholarly account of the subject. The author is well-qualified to handle the task he has taken on. Abdullah Sahin has taught at various universities, presently directs the Centre for Muslim Educational Thought and Practice, and is the course leader for the M.Ed. programme in Islamic Education at the Markfield Institute of Higher Education (UK).

Meaning of Being Human

The basic question this book asks is: What does it mean to be educated Islamically in the modern world? Sahin explains that as a “Muslim educator,” he been preoccupied with this question for more than a decade, and that his journey led him to rethink the theory and practice of contemporary Islamic education. Moreover, he writes, it challenged him to rethink Islam itself in the context of today’s world. “I have come to realise”, he says, “that, in order to attend properly to the complexity of this educational issue, I must engage with the more fundamental question of how the meaning of being human is imagined within Islam.”

To gauge what it means to be Islamically-educated in the modern world Sahin explores the theology and pedagogy of the educational practices in Muslim educational institutions in the UK and Kuwait as case studies. Sahin’s findings lead him to contend that “Such institutions appear to be no longer capable of producing creative minds” or “nurturing the skills” necessary to solve the complex problems of Muslims today. Moreover, he says, the majority of the Muslim educational institutions failed to help students gain proper knowledge and understanding of Islam and did not facilitate the development of “mature faith”.

An Authoritarian Process of Knowledge Transmission

Based on his survey of Muslim youth in Kuwait and the UK, Sahin reflects on contemporary Muslim religious education more generally. “Today”, he remarks, “it is unfortunate that the conception of ‘education’ within contemporary Muslim culture has become largely equated with an authoritarian process of knowledge transmission that is geared towards sharing the identity of the learner in a process akin to indoctrination.” “This rigid perception of Islamic education”, he believes, “is not confined to some extreme examples, such as the recent and increasingly violent Boko Haram movement in north-eastern Nigeria, which declares all forms of Western education to be sacrilegious.” Rather, he says, “The perception of Islamic education displayed within the traditional forms of Islamic schooling across the Muslim world, such as the madrasah of South Asia or the Pesantren system of Indonesia, indicate features of an instruction-centred and rigid inculcation process that largely ignores the personal agency of the learner.”

Critical Reflection

Echoing the views of numerous other Muslims who are concerned about the dismal state of Muslim religious education in various parts of the world, Sahin remarks, “Islamic education and education in general within Muslim societies across the globe has been reduced to a process of mere training, instruction, and, often if not always, indoctrination, largely due to the neglect of critical reflection upon the meaning of education.” Such practices, he says, “fail to transform learners and communities to develop the courage and competence required to face the challenges of today.” Moreover, he says, the educational process in many Muslim religious educational institutions also “does not appear to be communicating adequate knowledge and understanding of Islam to learners” and that they do not facilitate the emergence of “mature Islamic subjectivities.”

Sahin also believes that contemporary forms of Muslim religious education deny Muslim learners what he calls “their rights to personal agency and faith development”. The outcome of this denial, he remarks, “can hardly be reconciled with the values of democratic education or the educational ethics of Islam, which emphasizes the importance of maintaining the dignity of all.” Moreover, Sahin says, many Muslim religious educational institutions instill in their students what he calls a ‘foreclosed’ religious identity—one that is narrow, confined and not informed by the exploration process. Because of this and marked religious literalism, students may easily be prone to exclusivism. Another unfortunate aspect of the ethos and pedagogy of many such institutions is their focus on stressing differences with people of other faiths. “This”, Sahin opines, “is one of the least desirable modes of religiosity in a multicultural society, as it may include a strong vulnerability to extremism.”
“These challenges all strongly point to the urgent need to rethink the meaning of education (tarbiyah) in Islam”, Sahin affirms.
‘Foreclosed’ Sense of Muslim Identity

If Sahin is pained by the dismal reality of contemporary Muslim religious education in general and the ‘foreclosed’ sense of Muslim identity that it promotes, he sees hope—in the possibility of rethinking what education should be according to his reading of the Quran. Reflecting on selected passages of the Quran, he says that education should be “the critical-dialogical process of becoming”, enabling humans to grow into “mature selfhood” and spirituality. The development of a “mature human personality in its cognitive, emotional, moral, religious and spiritual realms”, he says, constitutes the core of the Qur’anic educational vision and pedagogic practice. Hence, for Sahin, Islamically-appropriate religious education would consist not simply in providing bits of information but would nurture learners’ intellectual, emotional, and spiritual lives—their minds, hearts and souls. The pedagogic practice based on this vision would seek to promote, in Sahin’s words, an “intelligent Muslim faith” and “engaged, reflective Muslim minds”, enabling students to “show confidence in relating meaningfully to the world around them” and also to be self-critical.

Sahin advocates greater openness in Muslims learning from, and with others. He points out that the Quran talks about getting to know and learning from each other and suggests that humanity enter into a “constant intercultural and interreligious process.” Such openness to others, including people of other faiths, would help cultivate a sense of identity that is more accepting and open, in contradistinction to the narrow, stifling ‘foreclosed’ identity that Sahin notes many contemporary Muslim religious educational institutions promote. This would seem to resonate with what Sahin calls the “educational aim of the Qur’an”, which, he says, “is to nurture an ethically responsible critical and open attitude within humanity, so that peoples of diverse cultures, faiths and races engage with a meaningful dialogical process of learning from one another.”
Sahin hopes that what he calls this “transformative model” of contemporary Islamic education can play a central role in rekindling creativity and dynamism in contemporary Muslim societies. Perhaps the future of these societies will be shaped, in large measure, by whether or not they choose that option.

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